As tools have morphed into machines, empowering a seamless melt into information and data spaces with computers, governance has also evolved. Christiansborg Palace and the government building on the islet of Slotholmen in central Copenhagen Denmark is beginning inspiration for the artificial life installation C / Borg – The Parliament of Robots.

The present Christiansborg Palace is the last in a series of successive castles and palaces constructed on the site since the construction of the first castle in 1167. Since the fifteenth century, this building has evolved and now serves as the base of the central Danish administration.  Until 1794 it was the principal residence of the Danish kings and since 1849 has acted as the seat of Parliament, the seat of the Minister’s office, and the Supreme Court of Denmark.

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Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen Slotsholmen. Photo (CC) by Julian Herzog


As an artist, I admire Denmark’s architecture and governance on many levels. First, from a country such as the US where many feel our government is unresponsive to the people, I am drawn to this royal palace and how it iconically represents an ideal of a government that sees, provides for, and responds to the people.

The evolution of the palace from the king’s castle/home to the seat of administration and how the various styles of architecture reflect distinct eras of Danish architecture and governance.  Fires and politics have also been central to the formation of its current architectural statement, as the evolution of any management is related to time and, sometimes, chance happenings. The first fire in 1794 and the second in 1884 have influenced the castle and its current architecture.

The fires also parallel the civil, organizational, and institutional evolution of Denmark and as such, the architecture of Christiansborg Palace is really a living and evolving structure. The current Palace finished in 1928 with a Neo-Baroque style is just remarkable. The chapel completed in 1826 in a neoclassical style also adds to the layers-in-time expression of this work of architecture and Denmark’s evolution.

The palace is both a symbol and a vibrant living structure serving the people.

To an outsider, especially from the US where income inequality is high, Denmark looks ideal: a country with open education and universal healthcare. As a leader in wind development and for me as a daily bike rider, I admire the central role bikes play in everyday life and follow websites like Cargo Bike Nation;

In the process of researching and working on this installation, I also learn more about my Danish roots. My great-grandmother Mabel, and great Grandfather Nils came from Denmark in the 1880s. Their name was Stohl and changed to Steel at Ellis Island in NY. An uneducated man, he was good with his hands and built the family home in Sparta Wisconsin supporting his five kids with blacksmithing and handyman jobs. The family was so poor my grandmother wore clothing made of flour sacks. These sacks were s leftover from the large quantities of flour my great-grandmother used to make bread for the family. My grandmother Lila, perhaps, as a result, was fashion conscious and could hardly wait to leave Sparta for Milwaukee, where she met my grandfather Hugh (Scottish) and where my mother Ann was born.

C / Borg – Parliament of Robots at DIAS Digital Interactive Art Space invited by chief curator Morten Søndergaard and director of DIAS Rasmus Vestergaard will consist of interactive robotic sculptures inspired by the culture, nature, and political organization of Denmark and its relation to an evolving global politic of robots and machine vision. As devices and critical information infrastructures and their algorithms are increasingly used to navigate the constructed and the virtual world, as well as our natural world, questions arise about how they structure our relationships to the natural living systems that support us.

Could robots show sensitivity to natural living systems, given their epistemological tendencies to simplify the world with a reductionist code? How do robots influence and structure ideas about our planet and its future? Do robots and computers amplify or diminish life and can living systems find a symbiotic intertwining and coevolved coupling within the technological infrastructures that are now part of what appears to be the rapid movement toward autonomous machine replication?

As all life, including code-based computer artificial life, is foundational and dependent on natural living systems, this installation will create hybrids and composite organisms, where machine, nature and station and its living traveling participants will coexist within an artificial life art ecosystem, integrating computer and natural systems.

Entering the station, you experience 40+ responsive robots on the ceiling; moving toward your body heat and talking to each other wirelessly. When you are still, they will be still.


These artificial life robots inspired by Christiansborg Palace will hang from the ceiling of the station like caring fingers of a sea anemone and will function as Robot Folketing / Parliament of Robots responding to individuals as legislation and governance respond to the will of the people. The constitution requires equal representation of the various opinions of the electorate.  These robots will also respond to one and many individuals collectively as the metaphor for this extreme example of representational government.  The Danish political system is characterized by a fusion of powers with the government drawn from the ranks of the Folketing.

These fingers will respond when viewers pass. One robot will influence another robot as they are first visually activated with RGB LED colors and motion.

Some of the C / Borg – The Parliament of Robots will be given birth on laser cutters in natural wood and will allow replication of large numbers to fill the station with this living sculpture.  Each robot will be about 40 – centimeters long. They will be placed in the station to be out of the easy reach of passing viewers.

View of c / Borg Bots looking at planters and LED works on stairs


The laser-cut and constructed robotic buildings have Christiansborg Palace as an iconic point of departure and conflate contemporary architectonic forms with a totemic robotic form. They further play with potentials afforded in the process of making and sculpting with lasers and code-based replication with the logic the machine, and its nature tends to influence.

Motor and upside-down test to see motor speed and motion.

C / Borg Bot Version #4 with laser cut windows


High brightness RGB led test.

Data / Site / Interaction

Varieties of drawing robots will capture and create drawings that are the result of humans walking and interacting with one drawing robot. Another drawing robot will capture the sounds of the train and whistle and translate that into a drawing. Outside the station microphones will capture, birds chirping and other natural elements near the station and will allow a third drawing robot to make drawings based on these sounds.

The collection of this original data through the interaction of passing passengers will affect the analog accretive drawing outputs and will create semi-organized and chaotic designs.

These will hang on the walls in the main entrance and keep an abstract count of humans, machines, and nature.


Closeup of drawing machine making drawings based on data of trains arriving and departing the station. Modern Danish trains including high-speed trains would be used and rapid-prototyped.


Pens with large storage tanks will be used. As the plexiglass and sheets of plywood for this work are sourced in Denmark and the motor hangers and clips are lightweight, this work travels with low dimensional and physical weight.


DIAS C / Borg Drawing robot holder for steppers; version #2 in PLA rapid prototyping plastic on birch plywood


DIAS C / Borg Drawing robot holder for steppers; side view version #2 in PLA rapid prototyping plastic


Accretion bio and data work that both filters and collects human DNA dust, pollen, bacteria, and all-natural and artificial spores and gasses that flow through the station. The fan will reveal the image over time as the filter will collect the dust only in the pattern of the laser-cut filter material.

Filter Sculpture visualization #1


I envision these filter sculptures near the parking lot where human and animal cellular dust, pollen, bacteria, fungi, and car particulates will all come together in this composite.  The resulting print that is left will be a kind of passive collaborative collecting of human DNA and other natural particulates along with the signatures of our age which are trace machine particulates. The works will leave an imagistic core sample of that time slice in the urban bio/machinic particle mix that will then reveal the drawing over time.

Danish texts constitutional/poetic

9-15 LED text-based works ascending the stairs will be displaying constitutional text elements, which are scrolling. Danish philosophies/ current discussions may also be streamed live if feasible.

The works will be encased in diamond plate steel or aluminum, with a reflective quality that will shimmer and have reflectance along the stairs allowing the text to be seen in reverse and shattered by the lensing of the diamond plate.


The effect is relevant to the evolution and cascading of ideas in time, as the words are recreated in these miniature technological lenses. The moving LEDs will also act as beacons and lighting along stairs, opposite the bike ramp on the other side.


Concerns for the placement of these works is the method of cleaning the station. Do they hose down the floor for example? The boxes can be sealed and watertight.


Messages to travelers

An expandable Lycra Intertwining LUR sculpture will change light based on the arrival and departure of the trains. While the form is inspired by the LUR they will be placed in the mid landing of the station. They will also be a signal to viewers signaling with sound/light as trains arrive.

On the windows colored film yellow on the left and pink on the right. Laser-cut plastic mirrored surfaces will be placed along the window to reflect trains and sky on the lower window sill. The windows will also reflect the Intertwining Lur as more and less as darkness falls.

Intertwining LUR lycra and LED, sound sculpture (NOTE: Cloud word is NOT part of work…just the photo I have of the window)


Semaphores / Machine Sonification / Emotion

Varieties of semaphore robots are being explored. Potentially hanging from the walls at the entrance or near the stairs landing, these semaphore-inspired works will signal to the future of our planet. These will be networked; at times working in synchrony and at times doing individual dances/spinning.

They will have flowing soft elements with images on printed silk to capture the motion of the robots and wind through space as the station doors open and close. Patterns of material flowing in relation to stepper activation will be further explored.

The stepper motors also make interesting sounds, and I may use that sound as part of the aesthetic of this portion of the C / Borg – Parliament of Robots.


Version #3 Semaphore Bots motor and microcontroller and H-Bridge board holder.

VR / Where artists invent the future

Since Denmark was the first country I was able to realize a crowdsourced project at Aalborg University with the invitation of chief curator/researcher/professor Morten Søndergaard and artist/professor Laura Beloff, I will also be envisioning a future within the physical station that is a virtual recreation of the station.

However, when you exit the station virtually in this VR work (viewed while sitting on a rococo couch) you will be entering a proposed future scenario of Copenhagen and the planet broadly. Invited artists and futurists will be constructing and imagining “the future” with virtual rooms. By exiting the virtual station doors you would, in essence, be entering a kind of collective imagination of the artists. The proposed VR works may be concerned with environmentalism or politicking, however, artists may also show the potential for exploring a work that may only be accessed through a VR experience.

Once proposed to me and the curator all 3D assets for the VR would be created by my students who study 3D modeling and then brought into the Unity Game Engine. Students may be able to receive credit for an internship.

View of King and Queen’s lounge as you walk upstairs from the landing



This VR work will be viewed from the Queen and King’s lounge, where a rococo couch and nearby joystick, allow navigation through the virtual world being displayed on the large flat screen tv set in the place where the mirror of the dresser would be.

This VR work where it appears to be a mirror is navigated with a first-person controller joystick. This is a proposed flat-screen TV placed within the place of the mirror.


The white plastic installation above may blow in the wind as the double doors are opened and closed for trains.

If these kinetic elements are approved and feasible, they would be constructed by artist Dana Lynne Harper and would enter the exhibition as an invited collaborative work, given the design will be by both Rinaldo and Harper. Clearly, this proposed element cannot impede line-of-sight emergency signage, so this is one major consideration for the placement and or approval of this work.

This work would be constructed with wire mesh and fire-resistant plastic tape and would be lite-weight for shipping.


The wallpaper will be fabricated with alternating wind vanes from industrial wind farms and the Mute Swan.

The rococo couch, dresser, and TV will be sourced locally in Denmark.

 Where ornate elements are needed existing couches may be modified using rapid prototyping plastic. 

Close-up of custom wallpaper made with Mute Swan and large wind vanes.


This proposed VR work will create a national and international dialogue about education and government, and the function of artists, researchers, and citizens in creating their ideal worldespecially with machines and advanced technologies of electronic and mechanical control. Artists and creative folks are generally quite adept at evolving technologies especially when unconstrained by market forces. The manifestation of the virtual Copenhagen and virtual will be an exciting adventure of collaboration and visualization.

In this virtual space, we may see the mini fruit fly printers of Laura Beloff and the green worm reprocessing worlds of artist Amy Youngs and sound installations by TradeMark Gunderson.  These elements of the work will allow a truly international dialogue between the collective brain trust of Denmark and with a planet of thinkers, makers, and terraformers — a dialogue about the function of the arts and government in the evolution of contemporary culture and evolving governance.

This element of the exhibition will be subject to how the budget goes.

The Politics of the Machines – Art and After

Chief curator Morten Søndergaard and artist/professor Laura Beloff will be hosting an international conference at the same time as the premiere of this work.

The POLITICS OF THE MACHINES – ART AND AFTER EVA-Copenhagen 2018 will take place concurrently with the opening of C / Borg – The Parliament of Robots.

Living Systems/machine gestures

A number of slow-growing, hanging planters fabricated from rapid prototyping processes will host epiphytes (air plants) and local mosses of Denmark; blad Mosser; hepatopsida, anthoceratopsida, spagnopsida, andreaseopsida and electronic monitoring and watering is in research. These may be cast in terra-cotta.


Epiphyte Danish Moss bot holder version #2 rapid-prototyped unpainted


Epiphyte / Moss holder version #2 rapid prototyped and painted with flat brown paint.

Electronics / sensing / actuation

The works will be robotized with Arduino microcontrollers, XBee and Zigbee networking, motor shields, and Arduino programming. Passive infrared sensors within each robotic palace allow them to be responsive to passing viewers as they move through the station. Motor shields designed for DC gear-head motors and/or stepper motors will be utilized in order to drive the C / Borg bots.

Power supplies will reside nearby within embedded hanging planters holding epiphytes and mosses of Denmark and will bring 12 volt DC (Direct Current) to each robot.

That voltage will also be regulated down to 5 volts to supply the Arduino microcontrollers. The robots will be using low power and therefore be energy efficient. As the C / Borg robots will only move when viewers pass through the station they will otherwise be at rest, adding to their functioning longevity.

Custom-designed and laser-cut Scotch yoke mechanical devices are being developed for fail-safe motor actuation of monofilament pull strings that will run through the palace for movement in response to sensor activation. Four passive infrared sensors placed around each robot will give eight quadrants of sensing and actuation toward human body heat. As most human body heat comes from their head the sensors are responsive to even the slightest movement.

Rapid prototyped Scotch yoke version # 1 to turn stepper motor circular-motion into linear-motion, for moving C / Borg Bots.

Software / Behavior / Misbehavior / Mesh Networks

The software is a variant of the subsumption architecture of MIT and will allow a distributed flocking behavior based on emergent behaviors of the robots reacting to the human presence and reacting and interacting with each other.

They will emerge in this process. Emergence can be described as individual elements emerging into an organic whole, through the interactions of localized sensing and actuation behaviors.

All robots will move toward the body heat of humans moving through space. The robots will also respond to each other with a distributed mesh network of sensors and actuators, so the individual robots will form a large a-life robotic organism.

One moving C / Borg bot will cause a cascade of other C / Borg bots to move and respond in like manner, given humans’ proximity to the robots.

XBee ZigBee 802 network test with Arduino #1 passive infrared sensor causing the motor to move clockwise and send that data wirelessly to Arduino #2 on right. One mimics the behavior of the other as an emerging body language for the C / Borg Bots.


Test #1 of XBee’s talking to each other via a wireless network.

Lighting / Visual / Emotional

Lighting will be an important component both actually and metaphorically. Bright RGB LED boards are placed inside each C / Borg robot allowing constantly changing, flickering colors to project light of varying intensities onto the ceilings and walls of the Vallensbæk Station DIAS.

3D Model of high brightness LEDs projecting from laser-cut windows onto the white ceiling


High brightness RGB LED board for the interior of C / Borg bots

Public Discussion / Participation / Education

One component will be to provide roadmaps for future makers on how to approach prototyping and building robots. A few may be donated to high schools and colleges around Denmark to experiment with and to stimulate a conversation about recyclable materials, critical making, robotics technology, and the future of government.

The discussions would involve conceptualization, sustainability issues, advanced manufacturing techniques, robotic control as well as artificial life programming techniques.

Other possibilities are to make the robots open source, so others can print them with their own laser cutters and or 3D printers. The software may also be open source and allow others to experiment and control what they have created.

Local / International Web Outreach

As part of the installation a couple of the smaller rooms, like the one on the Vallensbæk train Station platform and the one below in the entrance, could have video projectors and closed-loop cameras showing the installation and also allow people to enjoy the work locally. Locally the camera would be a direct feed of a camera that is focused on a natural part of the surrounding green space of the station, like in the bushes focused on a birds nest, allowing those on the platform to watch and see nature space as a projection map onto the walls. International outreach is may be accessible through the Queen and Kings lounge as well as online educational materials made accessible via the web.

While multiple thanks should go to; the DIAS curatorial board contemporary artist, #MortenSøndergaard (DK), curator, assistant professor – Aalborg Universitet, København, and #RasmusVestaargard Chief curator DIAS, in the end, this project was not realized in the space.

While I had received an invitation and contract to produce the work, began hiring workers, and spent about 7K of my own $, the contract was never signed. After many emails and promises to sign the contract, it was never signed. My emails and calls were not returned and the chief curator Rasmus Vestaargard subsequently left the position. This left me in the hole for 7K. Neither Morten Sondergaard nor, I could ever understand why the contract and commission were offered and why I was allowed to continue to spend my money with promises, though the contract was not signed?

Since then, I have taken some of the ideas produced in this work to other contexts successfully.

However, artists beware that it is best not to trust that contracts will be signed, and caveat emptor; do not spend your own money on commissions in advance of receiving a fully signed contract. 


DIAS Digital Interactive Art Space
Vallensbæk Station
2665 Vallensbæk Strand


Artist and Director

Ken Rinaldo: Concept, design, and direction as well as 3D modeling, electronics, and fabrication

Artists Contributors

Dana Lynne Harper (Contingent on the placement of work proposed)

Artists in VR world: (proposed)

Ken Rinaldo, Laura Beloff, Amy Youngs, Trademark Gunderson, Riley Patrick, Danner Seyfer Sprague

Studio Assistants:

Trademark Gunderson: Electronics and programming
Danner Seyfer Sprague; 3D modeling VR
Riley Patrick: 3D modeling, VR

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Early Visuals.


3D mockup of the installation on the top deck of DIAS Digital Interactive Art Space at the Vallensbæk Station with 16 C-Borg Bots